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陜西省藍田縣新街遺址全新世鳥類分類學記述

發布時間:2013年07月11日  作者:張玉光

張玉光1,胡松梅2,邵晶2,李志恒3,劉迪1,楊亞長2

1) 北京自然博物館,北京,100050;

2) 陜西省考古研究院,西安,710054;

3) 德克薩斯州立大學杰克遜地球科學學院,美國奧斯汀,TX 78712

內容提要:2~3年來,陜西省考古研究院科研人員再次對藍田縣的新街遺址進行了搶救性發掘,經過清理整理,發現于新街遺址灰坑、探溝和探方中的全新世鳥類骨骼共70件。鳥類化石均為分散保存骨骼,但此次發現的鳥類骨骼保存不僅數量多,而且形態也較完好,是國內全新世鳥類化石發現記錄所罕見的。本文記述了對這批鳥類化石開展形態解剖學的鑒定,并系統完成分類學研究的成果,新街遺址中總計鳥類所屬8目、8科、8屬,共9種,其中以水生鳥類居多。此外,根據鳥類的生存習性及鳥類骨骼上殘存的人工痕跡,還針對新街遺址全新世時期的環境和古人類的生活行為進行了全方位多角度的分析和推理,為新街遺址在傳統考古學研究的基礎上提供了全新的科學信息和有益的補充。

關鍵詞:分類學;全新世;鳥類化石;新街遺址;陜西藍田

Taxonomy of the Holocene Birds from the Xinjie Site in Lantian County, Shaanxi Province, China

ZHANG Yuguang 1,HU Songmei 2,SHAO Jing2,LI Zhiheng 3,LIU Di 1,YANG Yachang2

1Beijing Museum of Natural History,Beijing, 100050;

2) Archaeological Research Institute of Shaanxi Province,Xi’an 710054;

3Jackson School of Geosciences, University of Texas at Austin, TX 78712, USA 

Abstract: In the last two to three years, researchers from the Archaeological Research Institute of Shaanxi Province made another rescue excavation in the Xinjie archeological site inLantianCounty. The new excavation yielded 70 avian specimens from the ash pit, test trench as well as test pit from Xinjie site of Holocene. Although dispersed and disarticulated, the quantity and exquisite preservation of these bird remains were rare among Holocene records fromChina. These birds are assigned into eight orders, eight families, eight genera and nine species, most of which belong to waterbirds. In addition, based on the bird remains and human marks preserved in the skeletons, we also provided new interpretations of the paleoecology of Xinjie site and the associated ancient human behavior, providing supplementary information in addition to the previous traditional archaeology studies.         

Key words: taxonomy; Holocene; fossil birds; Xinjie Site; Shaanxi Lantian

圖1 陜西藍田縣新街遺址地理位置圖

Fig.1 Geographic position of the Xinjie site ofLantian County,ShaanxiProvince

2 陜西藍田新街遺址全新世鳥類H385:5(a)、H114:1(b)、H385:2(c)、H385:7(d)、H42:3(e)H348:1(f)標本的形態特征

Fig.2 Morphological features of specimens H385:5(a), H114:1(b), H385:2(c), H385:7(d), H42:3(e), H348:1(f) of Holocene birds from Xinjie site inLantian,Shaanxi

                        圖3 陜西藍田新街遺址全新世鳥類H333:3(a)、G6:1(b)、G21:1(c)H29:1-2(d)標本的形態特征

Fig.3 Morphological features of specimens H333:3(a), G6:1(b), G21:1(c), H29:1-2(d) of Holocene birds from Xinjie site inLantian,Shaanxi

陜西藍田新街遺址全新世鳥類H38:1(a)標本與現生雕鸮右尺骨(b)對比

Fig.4 The comparison of specimen H38:1(a) of Holocene birds from Xinjie site inLantian,Shaanxi with the right ulna of living Bubo bubo (b)

5 陜西藍田新街遺址全新世鳥類H299:1標本形態觀察        

Fig.5 Morphological features of specimen H299:1 of Holocene birds from Xinjie site inLantian,Shaanxi

6 陜西藍田新街遺址中禿鷲的部分骨骼標本 

Fig.6 Partial skeletons of vulture from Xinjie site inLantian,Shaanxi

7 陜西藍田新街遺址全新世鳥類H355:1(a)、H91:1(b)H291:2(c)標本形態對比

Fig.7 Comparative anatomy of specimens H355:1(a)、H91:1(b) and H291:2(c) of Holocene birds from Xinjie site inLantian,Shaanxi

8 陜西藍田新街遺址全新世鳥類H344:1標本的形態學特征

Fig.8 Morphological features of specimen H344:1 of Holocene birds from Xinjie site inLantian,Shaanxi

9 陜西藍田新街遺址全新世鳥類H355:2(a)、G22:3(b)、ⅡT0215:1(c)標本形態特征

Fig.9 Morphological features of specimen H355:2, G22:3,and T0215:1 of Holocene birds from Xinjie site inLantian,Shaanxi

10 陜西藍田新街遺址全新世鳥類ⅠT0113:2(a)、ⅠT0114:13(b)標本與現生大鴇左跗跖骨(c)對比

Fig.10  The comparison of specimensT0113:2(a)、ⅠT0114:13(b)) of Holocene birds from Xinjie site inLantian,Shaanxi with the tarsometatarsus of living Otis tarda (c)

11 陜西藍田新街遺址全新世鳥類ⅠT0503:3(a)和ⅠT0503:4(b)標本形態特征

Fig.11 Morphological features of specimenT0503:3(a) and T0503:4(b) of Holocene birds from Xinjie site inLantian,Shaanxi

12陜西藍田新街遺址全新世鳥類G13:1標本上的人工痕跡

Fig.12 Artificial mark of specimen G13:1 of Holocene birds from Xinjie site inLantian,Shaanxi 

發表于《地質論評》,2013,59(1)):149-158.

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